SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|3 Months Ended|
Mar. 31, 2023
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES|
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||
NOTE 2 - SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Basis of Presentation
The Company prepares its financial statements in accordance with rules and regulations of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) and GAAP in the United States of America. The accompanying interim financial statements have been prepared in accordance with GAAP for interim financial information in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation S-X. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and footnotes required by GAAP for complete financial statements. In the Company’s opinion, all adjustments (consisting of normal recurring accruals) considered necessary for a fair presentation have been included. Operating results for the three months ended March 31, 2023, are not necessarily indicative of the results for the full year. While management of the Company believes that the disclosures presented herein are adequate and not misleading, these interim financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited financial statements and the footnotes thereto for the year ended December 31, 2022, contained in the Company’s Form 10-K filed on March 31, 2023.
All amounts in these financial statements, notes and tables have been rounded to the nearest thousand dollars, except share and per share amounts, unless otherwise indicated.
Basis of Consolidation
The financial statements have been prepared on a consolidated basis, with the Company’s wholly owned subsidiaries, Trinity Reliant Ventures Limited, Artelo Biosciences Limited and Artelo Biosciences Corporation. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated.
Research and Development (“R&D”)
R&D expenses consist primarily of costs related to clinical studies and outside services, personnel expenses, and other R&D expenses. Clinical studies and outside services costs relate primarily to services performed by clinical research organizations and related clinical or development manufacturing costs, materials, and supplies, filing fees, regulatory support, and other third-party fees. Personnel expenses relate primarily to salaries and benefits. R&D expenditures are charged to operations as incurred.
The Company recognizes R&D tax credits receivable from the United Kingdom government for spending on R&D as an offset of R&D expenses.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents include cash in banks, money market funds, commercial paper, and certificates of term deposits with maturities of less than three months from inception, which are readily convertible to known amounts of cash and which, in the opinion of management, are subject to an insignificant risk of loss in value. The Company had $6,916 and $6,888 in cash and cash equivalents at March 31, 2023, and December 31, 2022, respectively.
Periodically, the Company may carry cash balances at financial institutions more than the federally insured limit of $250 per institution. The amount in excess of the FDIC insurance as of March 31, 2023, was approximately $6.3 million. The Company has not experienced losses on these accounts and management believes, based upon the quality of the financial institutions, that the credit risk with regard to these deposits is not significant.
Our investments in debt securities are carried at fair value. Investments in debt securities that are not classified as held-to-maturity are carried at fair value and classified as either trading or available-for-sale. Realized and unrealized gains and losses on trading debt securities are charged to income and unrealized gains and losses on available-for-sale debt securities are included in other comprehensive income or loss. The marketable securities held by the Company, classified as trading marketable securities, had an outstanding balance of $8,567 and $9,150 as of March 31, 2023, and December 31, 2022, respectively. The Company’s holdings in US Treasury instruments, classified as available-for-sale securities had an outstanding balance of $0 and $1,495 as of March 31, 2023, and December 31, 2022, respectively.
The Company follows ASC 820, “Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures,” which defines fair value as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. ASC 820 also establishes a fair value hierarchy that distinguishes between (1) market participant assumptions developed based on market data obtained from independent sources (observable inputs) and (2) an entity’s own assumptions about market participant assumptions developed based on the best information available in the circumstances (unobservable inputs). The fair value hierarchy consists of three broad levels, which gives the highest priority to unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3). The three levels of the fair value hierarchy are described below:
Level 1 applies to assets or liabilities for which there are quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2 applies to assets or liabilities for which there are inputs other than quoted prices that are observable for the asset or liability such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets; quoted prices for identical assets or liabilities in markets with insufficient volume or infrequent transactions (less active markets); or model-derived valuations in which significant inputs are observable or can be derived principally from, or corroborated by, observable market data.
Level 3 applies to assets or liabilities for which there are unobservable inputs to the valuation methodology that are significant to the measurement of the fair value of the assets or liabilities.
The carrying amounts shown of the Company’s financial instruments including cash and cash equivalents and accounts payable approximate fair value due to the short-term maturities of these instruments.
Set out below are the Company’s financial instruments that are required to be remeasured at fair value on a recurring basis in the fair value hierarchy as of March 31, 2023, and December 31, 2022:
Net Loss per Share of Common Stock
Basic earnings per share (“EPS”) is computed based on the weighted average number of shares of Common Stock outstanding during the period. Diluted EPS is computed based on the weighted average number of shares of Common Stock plus the effect of dilutive potential common shares outstanding during the period using the treasury stock method and as if converted method. Dilutive potential common shares include outstanding stock options and warrants.
For the three months ended March 31, 2023, and 2022, the following Common Stock equivalents were excluded from the computation of diluted net loss per share as the result was anti-dilutive.
New Accounting Standard Adopted
On January 1, 2023, the Company adopted ASU 2016-13, “Financial Instruments – Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments. These amendments permit the use of an impairment model known as the current expected credit loss (CECL) model when assessing financial instruments for impairment. There was no impact on the Company’s financial statements as a result of the adoption of the standard.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In June 2022, the FASB issued ASU 2022-03, ASC Subtopic “Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Fair Value Measurement of Equity Securities Subject to Contractual Sale Restrictions”. These amendments clarify that a contractual restriction on the sale of an equity security is not considered part of the unit of account of the equity security and, therefore, is not considered in measuring fair value. The amendments in this update are effective for public business entities for fiscal years, including interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2023. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently assessing the impact of the adoption of this standard on its consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for the basis of presentation and significant accounting policies concepts. Basis of presentation describes the underlying basis used to prepare the financial statements (for example, US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, Other Comprehensive Basis of Accounting, IFRS). Accounting policies describe all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef